Treatment and eradication of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is recommended due to its association with numerous gastrointestinal pathologies, it has been speculated that HP treatment could increase the risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). An American retrospective cohort study has addressed this, examining 38,535 patients (mean age 61.8 years) with confirmed HP infection between 1994 and 2018. No significant association was found between CDI super-infection and HP treatment or eradication confirmation, with 74.8% of patients receiving treatment and only 0.74% experiencing CDI. A number of risk factors were associated with CDI, including previous CDI (odds ratio [OR] 12.5; 95% CI: 9.21-17.0, P < 0.001) and hospital discharge within 12 weeks (OR 2.15; 95% CI: 1.22-3.77) and 4 weeks (OR 3.46; 95% CI: 2.18-5.48), P < 0.001. These results support the continuation of HP treatment when the infection is detected. The study, published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology, can be accessed here.

Contributed by Australian Medication Safety Services Associate – Isabella Singh